Stone and Gem Directory


Agates belong to a cryptocrystalline variety of "Quartz", otherwise
known as Chalcedony.

This group includes the following well known stones: all Agates,
Agatised wood, Banded Agates, Bloodstone or Heliotrope, Chalcedony,
Carnelian, Chrysophrase, Eyed Agates, Fortification Agates, Hornstone,
Jasper, Moss Agate or Mocha stone, Onyx, Plasma, Phrase, Sard, and Sardonyx.


A very light grey blue colour, which is sometimes produced by artificial
dyes, this stone is opaque to semi transparent. Its colour makes it a
calming comtemplatory stone.

- Supports retreat and spirituality.
- Encouraging a calm and contempletary view of life.
- It aids concentration and is helpful in the positive regulation of our affairs.
- It is helpful for the conscious digesting of life's experiences.
- Leads to spiritual maturity, growth, inner stability and a sense of reality.
- It gives protection by dissolving internal tensions.
- Creates a better resistance to external influences.
- It stimulates the memory, helping to analyse problems to their root causes.
- Helps to find simple, practical solutions and to put them into action.


Usually a bluish-white or grey colour. The "lace" refers to the gentle
layered look usually seen in this stone. It ranges from opaque to semi translucent.

Its cool subtle colour reflect the peaceful calming qualities of this
stone, which, by relieving stress and promoting good will, lightens
situations and nurtures maternal impulses.

- A maternal stone.
- Bestows peace, fortitude, happiness and security.
- Encourages contemplation, and calms the atmosphere.
- Reduces inner tension. Said to be a distressing stone.
- Placates family conflicts.
- Uncovers and discovers.
- Encourages rationality and logic.


This is a hard stone, which takes a high polish and comes in a large
variety of colours. These days the green colour is usually achieved
through the use of modern synthetic dyes. This in no way detracts from
the strengths of the Agate, but instead adds to it the qualities of the
colour. It is a semi translucent stone. Not only does this stone improve
self-esteem and confidence; but also it promotes peace and harmony by
means of honest, eloquent communication.

- Helps communication, through diplomacy and eloquence.
- Improves self-esteem.
- Promotes harmony.


A variety of Chalcedony, it is a semi opaque stone, ranging in colour
from clear and pale to light blue with moss green like inclusions.
Throughout history, because of its organic appearance, this stone has
been though to enhance a love of nature. It is sometimes called Mocha stone.

- Unblocks, thereby encouraging new initiatives, especially after long
periods of doubts and hesitation.
- Bestows inspiration, making it possible to begin anew, over and over again.
- It calms passion and violence, helping to solve highly emotional situations.
- Considered to be powerful in healing addictions such as alcoholism.
- It cleanses the soul and restores wit.
- Symbolic of true emotions; it binds friends and commits lovers.


This variety of Agate is a white form with green veins blended all over
it. The green colour varies from light olive green to dark forest green.
A stone which is effective over a long period of time, not good as a
quick fix.

- Encourages inner peace through certainty.
- Brings awareness of personal strengths, thus creating security and stability.
- Strengthens endurance and constancy.
- Gives courage in situations in which one feels vulnerable and bereft
of power.
- Helps to see difficulties as challenges.
- Awakens the warrior within.


The colour of this stone ranges from very light turquoise to aqua green.
It has a sort of flaky appearance, the flakes having different shades of
colour. It is opaque. A stone that works on the inner self developing
qualities of the individual, helping them towards personal awareness,
aiding their creative imagination; clarifying vision and leading them
towards God.

- Restores and promotes intuition, imagination and creativity.
- Soothes and strengthens personal awareness.
- Inspires trust in God.
- Removes apprehension and sadness.
- Clarifies vision.


This is not a true stone but petrified natural resin from the primeval
forests. The colour ranges from yellow, orange, red to brown, sometimes
with black inclusions or with flakes. Sometimes containing insects and
vegetation. It can be found completely transparent or completely opaque.

Amber, called "Elektrikon" by the Greeks, because of its magnetic
therapeutic properties, has always been greatly sought after, and is
said to represent life and the sun. It repels negative influences,
attracts friendship and love, and last but not least it is thought to
increase pleasure during sexual activities.

- A stone of life and the sun.
- Highly magnetic and therapeutic.
- Effective against negative magic.
- Considered especially protective of children.
- Restores energy and beauty.
- Helps the lonely and lovelorn to overcome their circumstances.
- Highly sensual, it increases the enjoyment of all things, including sex.


The colour of this stone ranges from dark violet to light lilac, and the
transparency ranges from clear to cloudy. The clearer the stone the
greater the quality. Sometimes it is banded with a full range of its
colour in one specimen.

The ancient Greeks used to place it at the bottom of their wine cups in
order to prevent inebriation. Hence the name. It is considered to have a
highly spiritual energy, which sharpens the mind, promoting wisdom, good
judgment, and moral courage. It calms anger, violence and other negative
passions, whilst inspiring true emotions and truly committed love and friendship.

- This stone has no negative aspects.
- A highly spiritual stone connecting earth with heaven.
- Sharpens all aspects of the mind, bringing awareness and good judgment.
- Said to be soul cleansing.
- Brings clarity through wisdom and courage.
- Keeps the individual in line with their life goals.
- Considered to be healing and preventative of all sorts of addiction,
especially alcoholism.
- Calming in highly wrought emotional situations.
- Symbolic of true emotional love.
- When given it is thought to strengthen commitment.
- Protective against guilt, fear and self-deception.


This is a transparent form of Obsidian, and dark brown in colour.
Obsidian is Lava which has cooled so fast that the minerals contained
have not had the time to form. It is a natural form of glass. It is said
that the Apache women cried so many tears that they cried for the whole
world, and therefore thought that he who possesses an Apache Tear, will
be protected from tears and sorrow, and need not ever cry another as all
tears have already been shed. Hence the name. It is thought to promote
courage, willpower and self-reliance.

- Powerful at warding of tearful experiences.
- Increases physical energy, courage, willpower and self-reliance.


Aquamarines are a light blue variety of Beryl, usually a very light
blue, varying in paleness. They range from completely transparent to
milky. Its soothing beautiful colour brings back memories of blue lakes
and seas. Mystical and pure, it opens the world of the subconscious,
towards a restored innocence and youthful attitude. By soothing emotions
and bestowing patience and vision, it promotes the flow of communication
between friends, lovers, and within families, smoothing the path of interaction.

- Powerfully psychic stone related to the sea and its magic.
- The stone of pure soul seers and mystics.
- Opens the subconscious, promoting innocence and youthful energy.
- Calms and soothes the emotions, bestowing patience.
- Helpful in releasing the flow of communication between friends, lovers
and relatives, smoothing the path of interaction.
- Imparts courage and strength. Improves self-confidence and the ability
to stand one's ground.
- It creates a warm and true heart.


This is an opaque stone, giving the impression of being made up of a
multitude of tiny flakes or fibres. Although the most familiar colour is
a light mint green colour, Aventurines are also found red, yellow, dark
green, including a dark indigo blue form, called "Vivianite". A stone
with apparently contradictory properties. It brings mental powers and
level-headedness and encourages adventures and risky situations. People
with a strong individuality will find that this stone promotes their
creativity. It is thought to be the stone for Gamblers, and said to
attract luck and wealth.

- Said to increase mental powers whilst dispelling aggressive feelings.
- The stone of original and independent individuals, stimulating
creativity and imagination.
- Also the stone of gamblers, giving increased luck in games of hazard,
it is said to attract money and wealth.
- It brings unexpected and surprising adventures, including love.
- It calms troubled emotions, promoting sleep and dreams.
- Said to encourage a love of nature.
- Liberates from pressure and stress.
- Releases deeply held fears, replacing them with trust and hope.
- It refreshes and energises the soul.
- Enlivens the intellect, enhancing certainty, bringing understanding
even in the most difficult circumstances.
- It encourages the ability to communicate.


Heliotrope is the name given to a green form of Jasper. Ranging in
colour from a dark green with red flecks, to a grey green, again with
red flecks. It is because of the inclusion of the flecks of red Jasper
that the stone is often called "Bloodstone". Another reason for this
name is that it is thought to be very effective in staunching hemorrhages.

This is stone worn by those seeking victory through wisdom, courage and
discretion, since it is also thought to bestow invisibility. It is
believed that it bestows the protection of the original owner onto the
new owner. It helps to prevail over competitors and adversaries, both in
business dealings, court cases and other conflicting interests. It opens
the past and brings prophetic dreams.

- It bestows wisdom, calms anger, and dispels fears.
- Promotes fellow feelings and general unselfishness.
- It gives physical strength, but also courage.
- Said to bring victory over all forms of opponents.
- Thought to bestow invisibility, and therefore worn by those wishing to
keep a low profile.
- It gives glimpses into the past, bringing prophetic dreams.
- Said to attract money, and therefore lucky in business and competitions.
- Helps the wearer to adjust to unexpected events and to control situations.


A semi transparent to opaque stone with a flaky, fibrous quality. The
colour ranges from red, through orange to yellow, but is also found
green, pink and blue. The white form is known as Iceland spar and is transparent.

Calcite has been used for thousands of years in folk medicine. It should
be worn over long periods of time as a hand comforter or as a pendent.

- Said to balance male and female polarities.
- Helps children to develop, and adults to recover positive attitudes.
- Depending on its colour, it reflects the energy of the sun and fire,
or of the moon, and therefore spirituality and purification.
- It increases powers of communication, promoting eloquence and
strengthening the voice.
- It protects the wearer against envy.
- This is the stone of blood ties, promoting family unity and love.
- Inspires sexual energy.


"Carnelian" or "Cornelian" is the name given to the red to orange form
of Agate, and means "flesh coloured one". It is a semi transparent
stone, sometimes banded. A cheerful, adaptable stone, presiding over
family unity. It protects the wearer against an overheated imagination,
feelings of jealousy, confusion and doubts, whilst bestowing
self-confidence to the shy and timid. By the same token, it increases
powers of communication.

- Dispels depression and melancholy.
- Calms an overheated imagination.
- Eliminates anger and promotes patience.
- Stills jealousy, confusion and doubts, giving self-confidence.
- It increases powers of communication, promoting eloquence and
strengthening the voice.
- It protects the wearer against envy.
- This is the stone of blood ties, promoting family unity and love.
- Inspires sexual energy.


Chalcedony belongs to a cryptocrystalline variety of "Quartz".

This group includes the following well known stones: all Agates,
Agatised wood, Banded Agates, Bloodstone or Heliotrope, Chalcedony,
Carnelian, Chrysophrase, Eyed Agates, Fortification Agates, Hornstone,
Jasper, Moss Agate or Mocha stone, Onyx, Plasma, Phrase, Sard, and Sardonyx.

Chalcedony itself is a semi transparent stone, sometimes banded, found
in a variety of colours ranging from white, to dusty blue and pink. This
lovely stone is sedate and discreet, and is therefore said to cure
hysteria, depression, and is considered to be generally helpful with
mental illness. It protects the wearer against the negativity in others,
against irrational fears and delusions, bringing peace.

- Banishes fear, delusion and nightmares.
- Calms hysteria, lifts depression, and wards off negativity.
- It is considered helpful against mental illness.
- White Chalcedony: protects against negativity in others, bringing
peace and healing. Encourages lactation and maternal feelings.
- Blue Chalcedony: promotes the ability to listen, understand and
communicate, even in foreign languages.
- It promotes pleasure in the contact with others.


An opaque stone, with a swirly mixture of peacock green and blue, as
well as black and grey. This stone was well known for its healing
properties amongst the Native American Indians, where it was used for
its calming and strengthening effects.

- Soothes fears and dispels doubts.
- Frees the personality through self-confidence.
- Promotes discretion.
- Wards of female disorders.


This is a transparent to semi transparent stone. The colour ranges from
very light yellow, to orange yellow. In the more cloudy examples there
may also be white sections. This transparent yellow stone ensures a
sunny cheerful disposition, whilst helping the wearer to focus the mind
and to sensibly control his or her emotional life.

- Increases physic awareness.
- Creates a sunny cheerful disposition.
- Makes the wearer able to help him or herself.
- Helps attain illumination and to keep the mind focused.
- Clarifies thoughts and encourages eloquence.
- Imparts a neutral, objective attitude, giving a sensible control over
emotional life.
- It diminishes destructive tendencies.
- Protects against nightmares, encouraging restful sleep.


Coral is not a stone, but the petrified remains of a living animal. It
is now strongly protected, and only included here out of interest due to
its ancient history. Because it is actually a living organism, it has
also been considered highly magic. It is thought to be lucky by many
cultures, associated with sea magic, Venus and the Great Mother. It is
easy and cheerful to wear. Said to be very protective of children.

- A fragile but potent magic.
- A powerful charm against the evil eye.
- Confers reason, prudence and wisdom.
- Protects children and sailors.


The diamond is the hardest substance in nature. Although it can be found
in all colours, to most familiar form is colourless. Unlike other
colourless stones, however, Diamonds have light or spark, which makes
them look like a burst of white light. Because of this they are usually
faceted in order to emphasise this quality. It is made up of carbon,
which has undergone enormous pressure, and is a further evolution of
common Coal. This fortunate chunk of "Coal" is widely considered the
king of all gems because of its brilliance and hardness. It confers an
aura of wealth and power to the giver and the recipient. It bestows
strength, courage, and rationality and increases the ability for learning.

- Confers power, strength and courage.
- It has been called a master healer, enhancing the full spectrum of energies.
- It dispels prejudice, encouraging objectivity and logic.
- Helps to draw abstract truths from experience, and advancing the
ability to learn quickly and easily.
- Eliminates the causes of sexual dysfunction, and infertility.


This is an opaque stone, which takes a high polish. It is made up of
various colours, including violet blue, brown, black, but mostly blue.
These colours seem to have been swirled together. It is a more recently
discovered stone and therefore there are few traditions relating to its
use. It takes its name from its discoverer, Eugene Dumortier.

- Bestows a positive attitude as well as a cheerful outlook on life. 
- It has been used in addiction therapies, and is considered to be anti compulsive.
- It provides courage and trust in difficult situations. Helps to gain
control over life and to preserve it. Called the "take it easy stone".


A transparent to cloudy stone, depending on its quality, belonging to
the Beryl family. A distinct green colour, so distinct that the stone
lends its name to this particular colour green. The colour can vary from
light to dark. Often the stone has inclusions within it, most usually
black Tourmaline crystals. This stunning and ambiguously exiting stone
has always exercised its mysterious fascination on both sexes. Its
positive powers dispel superficiality, strengthening commitment in love
and marriage, whilst keeping the wearer youthful in mind and body.

- A powerful exorcising stone.
- Promotes deep energy.
- Keeps the wearer youthful in mind and body.
- Dispels superficial seduction, strengthening love and marriage bonds.
- Improves vision and moral understanding.
- Promotes group co-operation.


Epidote is an opaque stone, which has the specs of being made up of
flecks of different shades of olive green, ranging from a creamy green
to dark olive. It takes a high polish. Unakite is a slightly different
variety where the olive green colour is mixed up with salmon pink
sections. This variety is also sometimes called "Flower Jasper".

- Encourages recovery and regeneration, restoring positive self-projection.
- Helps to overcome frustrations and failure, accepting weakness and mistakes.


A transparent stone, made up of bands, which range in colour from a cool
green to violet. These usually blend into one another. One variety,
which has no green, and consists of varying shades of violet purple,
from very dark, nearly opaque, through lilac to clear, is called "Blue
John". This is one of the stones which reacts to UV light.

By giving power to the intellect over the emotions, this stone promotes
sensible, conscious decisions. These prevail over any angry or impulsive
behaviour or prejudiced opinions.

- Gives power to the intellect over emotions.
- Promotes sensible, conscious decisions.
- Subdues angry and impulsive behaviour, or prejudiced opinions.
- Unlocks narrow minded, fixed ideas.


This stone comes in a variety of colours, which have their own names:
Almandine - red, brown to black.
Andradite - khaki. brown to black.
Grossularite - grey, green through to pink.
Hessonite - red, yellow, orange and brown.
Melanite - black.
Pyrope - dark red.
Rhodolite - dark red to reddish violet.
Spessardite - yellow, red brown, brown.
Uvarovite - emerald green.

The most familiar varieties are the red to dark pink, wine coloured
Pyropes or Rhodolites. A stone suitable for people who need consolation
for losses, and protection from depression and bitterness. It was
traditionally worn by widows. It is also the stone of deep and
passionate love. It was given between friends and lovers to ensure
meeting again.

- It lifts depression and fights against the evil that lurks in the
depth of the soul.
- It protects the wearer by creating a shell of positive vibrations.
- Promotes deep and passionate love.
- Symbolises affection, and is given between friends to ensure meeting again.
- Worn for consolation by widows to ensure them finding a new love.
- Aids will power, increasing confidence, courage and endurance.
- Helps tap into extra reserves of energy, imparting both mental and
physical strength.
- Combats depression, and other diseases of the mind and heart, it lifts
low spirits and thereby strengthens the aura.
Almandine: Thirst for action, capacity for work, imagination.
Andradite: Dynamism, flexibility, creative thoughts.
Grossularite: Relaxation.
Hessonite: Self respect, spiritual growth.
Melanite: Honesty, resistance.
Pyrope: Courage, good quality of life, charisma.
Rhodolite: Joie de vivre, warmth, sincerity, trust, healthy sexuality.
Spessardite: Willingness to help others, strengthens heart,
anti-depressive, helps with nightmares and sexual problems.
Uvarovite: Individuality, enthusiasm. 


This is not a real stone, but is artificially created by suspending
Copper dust in Glass. It is best known in its rust coloured variety,
sometimes used as a stone in signet rings. There is also a variety that
has been dyed blue, the result being a very deep purple black colour,
reminiscent of an Egyptian night sky, so I have been told. Although it
is a synthetic creation it takes on the healing properties of the copper
it contains, and is therefore thought to be protective and to attract love.

- Attracts love.
- Said to be protective. Especially against rheumatism.


This is an opaque stone with a very similar aspect to Tigers Eye, but a
very dark Prussian blue colour, with golden, green, and sometimes orange
bands running through it. It is also called Falcons Eye, or blue Tigers
Eye. The iridescent quality of this stone, as it is moved in light,
explains how it gives the illusion of an eye, and how it got its name.
In the middle Ages, this stone was worn as an amulet against witchcraft,
demons and the evil eye.

- Promotes fruitful self-analysis.
- Helps gain control over complex situations.
- Promotes rapid energy.
- Helps make sense of seemingly random events.
- Bestows an understanding of personal life plan.
- Helps take a distance from feelings and emotions, thereby lessening
influences of moods.
- Helps make decisions.
- Buffers the flow of energy and should therefore never be worn
continuously for more than a week at the time.


This is a dense, opaque stone, of a very dark metallic grey/black
colour. It is sometimes called "Bloodstone", this is because when it is
ground or cut, the ensuing dust turns blood red when mixed with water,
suggesting to the ancients that the stone was bleeding. This stone has
strong healing powers. It is said to bestow strength and courage as well
as a focussed purpose and resistance to stress. It is considered to be a
very powerful healing stone, protecting the wearer by absorbing
negativity into itself.

- Increases powers of consideration, by helping the wearer to focus on
the physical plane.
- Gives stability to purpose.
- Absorbs negativity and illness into itself.
- Bestows fortitude and endurance against stress.
- Strengthens the heart, and is very grounding.
- Promotes good sleep.


Other names for this stone are: Cordierite, Dichroite (meaning in Greek:
two coloured), and "Water Sapphire", to which it has no connection.
Iolite also comes from Greek, meaning violet coloured. The colour of
this stone ranges from a greyish blue to a violet, grey. It is a
transparent stone. It was used by the Vikings for navigational purposes
due to its very strong qualities of pleochroism, and was therefore
sometimes called the "Viking compass".

- It is said to increase imagination and all aspects of intuitive creativity.


This stone comes in a variety of colours, ranging from whitish, to pink,
lilac, violet and green. The green variety is also known as Jadeite, and
the colour can range from a very light creamy mint colour to a dark pine
green. It is usually opaque to translucent. Known and used throughout
the ages for carving and jewelry making. Subtly soothing, this
versatile, and powerful stone, seems to attract all the joyful elements
of living, such as love, luck, wealth, a large family, longevity,
immortality in Chinese culture. Its influence on the disposition of the
wearer is remarkable, bestowing a sense of justice tempered with mercy,
as well as a modest patient attitude.

- It is believed to attract love, and is given in the hope of receiving love.
- It attracts prosperous energies such as wealth, and is therefore
thought as being lucky for gamblers. 
- It creates a positive attitude towards money.
- It encourages a large family and longevity.
- It brings the wearer a sense of justice and wisdom, tempered by mercy.
- Encourages a modest, patient attitude, as well as promoting courage.
- Said to open the 3rd eye, and to strengthen mental faculties.


Jasper is a totally opaque stone, which takes a high to low polish. It
comes in a large variety of colours, some of which have separate names
of their own. The most usual colours are rust red, brown red, sandy,
yellow, brown, and light to dark green. It is not unusual for other
unrelated minerals to be referred to as various forms of Jasper, for
want of a more precise identification. i.e. "Silver eye" Serpentine is
often called "Zebra Jasper", and Epidote (Unakite) is sometimes called
"Flower Jasper". Rhyolite, Leopard Skin Jasper or Orbicular Jasper are
not Jaspers, but other forms of volcanic rock.

Yellow Jasper: burnt yellow. 

Landscape: sandy cream.

Turitella: brown and patterned with the small fossilized snails it contains.

Heliotrope: the green variety of Jasper, which has already been dealt
with under the heading of "Bloodstone".

Silex: the name given to the brick red, rust variety.

Breccia: The red variety mixed with cloudy white parts.

It produces a variety of positive influences to the wearer according to
its colour. These influences range from repelling negative magic to
helping shy people express themselves. It is said to protect against
dangers associated with water, and promotes peaceful sleep.

- All forms of Jasper are thought to impart courage, assertiveness in
the sense of dealing with things in a forthright manner.
- Stimulates uprightness and honesty.
- It helps the wearer come to terms with unpleasant circumstances.
- Stimulates the imagination, helping to transform ideas into actions.

Red: the most dynamic of the colours. It repels negative magic,
returning it to the sender. Strengthens willpower, helping the wearer to
achieve goals with determination. Promotes masculine qualities, and
feminine grace. 
Yellow: Eases communication for people who have trouble expressing
themselves. It is considered to be soothing and calming. Bestows endurance.
Brown: Brings dreamers down to earth.
Mottled: Protects against water dangers.
Green: Dispels hallucinations and promotes peaceful sleep as well as
bestowing courage. For further information about this variety see the
section for Bloodstone.


This is translucent stone. It usually a brown to whitish grey colour,
sometimes containing black inclusions. When it is turned in the light at
different angles, it displays a full spectrum of iridescent colours. A
relatively new stone, there are therefore few traditions associated with
it. It is called "Labradorite" because it was first found of the coast
of Labrador.

- It is thought to kill illusions, giving stability and helping to shape
goals and clear intentions.
- Brings back forgotten memories.
- Promotes creative introspection.


An opaque stone, distinctive for its vibrant deep blue colour. It often
has Pyrite inclusions, as well as particles of white marble. The name
comes from the Persian word "Lazur" which means blue stone. A vibrant
cheerful stone considered to strengthen the bonds of love and fidelity
between lovers and friends. It is uplifting, soothing and calming,
bestowing self-confidence and a gentle, helpful frame of mind.

- Draws love to the wearer, and strengthen existing bonds between
friends and lovers, encouraging joy and fidelity.
- It enhances awareness, promoting will power and liberation from compromise.
- Encourages kindness, helpfulness.
- Bestows confidence in shy people.
- Calms emotions and promotes peaceful, meditative vibrations.
- It helps the individual to rule over personal spiritual kingdom.
- Creates a gentle and cheerful attitude, lifting depression.
- Helpful in breaking the hold of the conscious mind over the
subconscious, allowing intuitive impulses to be known.


This is an opaque stone, with a flaky appearance. The colour ranges from
creamy lilac, through pink to violet. Another name was "Lilalite". This
was given by Abbe Poda, who wanted to make a play of words between the
colour and the Hindu word "Lila", which means, "play".

- Considered to be a stone of peace.
- It allows for personal development to take place inconspicuously.
- Helps the wearer to preserve personal space in crowds.
- Helps decision-making by neutralising distracting agents.
- Encourages independence, and to realize goals without outside help.


A totally opaque stone. White in colour with thin grey/black veins
running through it. There are also grey, yellow and brown varieties.
Originally it was called "Pure Talc Earth". A recently discovered stone
with therefore few traditions attached to it.

- Encourages a positive attitude towards life.
- Helps self-acceptance.
- Increases tolerance and patience.
- Promotes the ability to take secondary roles gracefully.
- Dispels irritation, nervousness, and fearfulness.
- Strengthens the ability to listen.


An opaque atone, banded or marbled, mainly light to dark green in
colour, but usually also including black. A stone with a very ancient
history, and due to its Copper content, always considered to be a
woman's stone, and therefore dedicated to Goddesses in almost all
cultures. It has been used since medieval times to alleviate menstrual
cramps and to aid labour. Because of this it is often called the
"Midwifes stone".

Such an exiting stone cannot but correspond to powerful magic and
energy. It is said to promote success in business, but also helps shy
people to cope with circumstances. It rids the wearer of compulsive
behaviour patterns and helps uncover underlying traumas, so that these
can then be dealt with. The only weakness of this stone is that whilst
it brings things out into the open, it is all it does. How to deal with
the results of this new awareness is up to the individual.

- Promotes success in business.
- Rids the owner of shyness and compulsive behaviour.
- Brings underlying traumas to the surface. Taking away inhibitions,
encouraging the expression of emotions.
- Encourages appreciation of aesthetics.
- A stone of sensuality.
- Promotes friendship, helping to imagine and appreciate the
circumstances of others.
- Awakens the desire for knowledge, bringing awareness of personal
desires, needs and ideals.
- Inspires the wearer to experience life more intensely, with a more
adventurous attitude, enjoying risks and relying on luck.
- Strengthens the ability to observe details and to understand concepts
more quickly.



Sometimes called "Tektite", it is a translucent bottle green stone,
covered with ridges on its surface. Moldavite is the result of splatters
of molten rocks that were propelled into the air at the impact of giant
meteorite, approximately 15 million years ago. The splatters cooled as
they fell back to the ground over a 250-mile radius, in the general area
of Moldavia, hence the name of the stone.

- Traditionally used for the lovelorn.
- It enhances the wearer's clairvoyance, sometimes through dreams and
surfacing memories.
- It encourages detachment in solving problems, at times by
unconventional means.
- It is said to fulfill wishes.
- Allows the wearer to experience immense spiritual dimensions.
- Gives insight into the meaning of the duties of life.
- Encourages sympathy and compassion.


This is a translucent stone, found in a variety of colours ranging from
white to peachy, to clear, with an iridescent, sometimes-bluish colour.
Again this is a stone with an old history, and, as its name suggests, is
traditionally associated with the moon, and therefore women. A feminine
stone, unusual and subtle, it dissipates misunderstanding and soothes
bitterness. Not only does it enhance the youthful appearance of the
woman who wears it, but also it strengthens all feminine qualities.

- It dissipates problems between lovers and soothes bitterness.
- Enhances all feminine qualities.
- Helps maintain a youthful appearance, and mental outlook.
- It enhances intuition, and depth of feeling.
- It is considered to be protective when traveling over water.
- It increases mediumistic abilities, and is used to encourage lucid
dreaming at the time of the full moon.
- During the waning moon it helps to predict the future.


This stone is a dark pistachio green, and opaque. Often passed of as
Jade, it also sometimes has a fibrous quality reminiscent of Green
Aventurine. The name is derived from the Greek word "Nephron", meaning
kidney. Its healing traditions are very old, and found throughout the
world. Often it was used to carve images of the Gods.

- Protects against hostile influences, disabling anyone trying to
influence the wearer by applying pressure.
- Helps preserve personal identity.
- Bestows certainty.
- Helps reduce tension and worry.
- Helps discharge violent emotions, and dampen aggressions.
- Leads to inner peace, by encouraging neutrality and tolerance.
- Combats indecisiveness, dissolving doubts and senseless brooding.
- Promotes creativity and action. 


Obsidian is volcanic lava that has cooled very rapidly; not allowing the
minerals contained the time to crystallize thus creating volcanic glass.
In the case of Snowflake Obsidian, the snowflake effect is formed when
some of the grey feldspar contained in the molten lava manages to
crystallize. Most Obsidian is an opaque black, and with Snowflake
Obsidian the black surface has white flecks on it, like snowflakes.
Another example of Obsidian is reddish brown with black flecks on its
surface, and is called Mahogany Obsidian. A grey variety is called
Silver Obsidian, and yet another variety is iridescent and called
Rainbow Obsidian. Man has used obsidian since Palaeolithic times, to
make blades for tools and weapons, as well as mirrors and other
artifacts. In Mayan cultures these mirrors were employed to predict the
future. The name is derived from a Roman called Obsius, who found
examples of the stone in what is Ethiopia. This is considered to be a
masculine stone, which frees the adventurous spirit of the individual.
At the same time it is said to bestow order, organization, and a subtle
kind of energy, which combats flightiness and confusion.

- A masculine stone.
- Considered to be grounding and centring, protecting against dizziness
and levity.
- Promotes integrity, order and organization.


This is a black form of Chalcedony. Sometimes banded with white. The
reputation of Onyx has not always been good, depending on cultural
traditions. Included here are the positive qualities, which are many.
The only point of warning is not to take its uses to extremes; i.e. one
of the strongest qualities is that it strengthens self-control, but if
taken to extremes this can become repression. A stone known through the
ages for its versatility. It increases concentration, depth and
seriousness of mind, whilst at the same time protecting the wearer from
hostile influences. It is believed to be very helpful in settling karmic
debts. Onyx should be worn over a long period of time as its effects
take some time to unfold, but should not be worn at night during sleep.

- Increases concentration, deep thinking, and a serious attitude.
- Increases the ability to listen and hear.
- Strengthens self-confidence and responsibility.
- Bestows spiritual strength.
- It frees the wearer from negative influences and protects from risky encounters.
- It speaks to the conscience and helps to control passions.
- Protective of the sex centre, as it is said to reduce sexual urges.
- It brings tranquillity and reserve.
- Encourages self-realization, as well as a healthy egotism.
- It helps to settle karmic debts.


This stone comes in a large variety of colours and forms, some of which
have their own names:
Bluish - Boulder Opal. 
White - Milk Opal. 
Black - Black Opal. 
Green/bluish green - Chrysopal. 
Yellowish green - Green Opal.
Orange - Fire Opal. 
Transparent - Water Opal. 
Opaque brown - Wood Opal. 
Pink - Pink Opal.

All Opals are highly iridescent, and most display the full colour
spectrum when they are viewed at different angles. Iridescent and awe
inspiring, this gem has at times been thought of as unlucky. The only
real basis for this idea could be because of its slightly frivolous
qualities, for a part from this aspect this stone is considered to be
the stone of joy and life. Its wide spectrum of colours is believed to
represent the light of life and its magic uniqueness.

- It is though to make the wearer invisible.
- Stimulates the thirst for life, bringing spontaneity and poetic genius.
- Enhances the wearers Eros, which can at times lead to frivolous attachments.
- Makes the wearer emotional, seductive, and unconventional, in love
with life, filled with optimism.
- Helps resolve any problems with sexuality, making sex uninhibited,
light-hearted and joyful.

Fire Opal: Awakens inner fire, encouraging the wearer to take risks and
to initiate actions. 
Chrysopal: Stimulates a child like curiosity, seeing the world as a huge adventure.
Green Opal: Encourages the wearer to find new perspectives and meanings
to life.
Pink Opal: Activates generosity and warmth towards others.
Black Opal: Is thought to store power and energy.


Pearls are not stones but of organic origin, formed within a variety of
shellfish, from the calcification of the animals natural secretions,
called "Mother of Pearl". This is produced in order to cover irritating,
sharp grains of sand, which have floated into the animal when they open
their shells in order to feed on passing plankton. Due to their organic
origins, and therefore current controversy attached to them, They are
included here, only out of interest due to their ancient history and
traditions. They have been venerated in most cultures throughout the
ages. The Greeks called them "Margaritas"; the Romans had a special
market for them. In Nearly all cultures they are associated with
Goddesses, the Moon and the sea. At times they have been considered of
as unlucky, and thought to bring tears, but maybe this was due to the
fact that until modern times, real danger was involved in fishing them
out of the sea, and the extraction of the Pearl itself will after all
cause the death of the shellfish. They are found in most colours. The
colour depends on particular chemicals in that section of the sea. The
most familiar are: white, cream, yellowish, pink, grey, bluish, and
black, and all the shades in between. Usually they tend to be round, but
they are also found in irregular shapes and these are called "Baroque"
Pearls. They symbolise all that is feminine and have been immensely
popular throughout the ages. They are thought to attract wealth and good
fortune, as well as ensuring a happy marriage.

- Enhances all that is feminine.
- Spreads loving vibrations, attracting love and ensuring a happy marriage.
- Attracts money, riches, luck and good fortune.
- They instill courage.

Blue: Luck.
Black: Luck.
Pink: Comfort.
Yellow: Health.
Red: Intelligence.


This stone is also called: Olivine or Chrysolite. It is a transparent
stone, and olive green colour, which ranges from a light, yellowish
green to a dark bottle green. This stone has been used in ancient Egypt
for jewelry and healing for over four thousand years. In the middle Ages
it was used to wards of evil spirits and to bestow wisdom and friendship.

- It is said to promote inner vision, giving insights to the future.
- Brings inspiration and verbal eloquence.
- Protects against the evil eye, as well as envy and any psychic attack.
- Relieves terrors, delusions, depression, and melancholia.
- Calms emotions and dispels anger.
- Said to attract love and wealth.
- Helps face personal mistakes and defects and to forgive ourselves.
Dispels self-blame, and a bad conscience.
- Brings awareness of neglected issues, stimulating the wearer to make amends.


This stone is a gold metallic colour and is therefore often called
"Fools Gold". The name "Pyrite" means "Fire stone", because it forms
sparks when it is struck, and has been used since the Stone Age to start
fires. Because of this property it has always been though to be highly
magical, and considered to be a "Warming stone".

- Promotes inner harmony, which is reflected in relationships with others.
- Bestows energy and willpower.
- Uncovers secret fears and memories.
- Clarifies life circumstances, allowing necessary changes to take place.
- Encourages self-realization, confronting the character, both the light
and dark sides.


Another large group of rocks, which can be found in all sorts of
colours, and usually have individual names of their own.
Transparent - Rock Crystal; 
Violet - Amethyst; 
Yellow - Citrine; 
Brown - Cairngorm; 
Pink - Rose Quartz; 
Green - Phrase; Green
Chatoyant - Cats Eye; 
Yellow Chatoyant - Tigers Eye; 
Brown, yellow, red, green and blue with Mica scales - Aventurine; 
Clear with cracks within it - Iris; 
Colourless with Rutile crystals suspended within - Needle Stone or
Rutilated Quartz; 
Colourless with black Tourmaline crystals within - Tourmalated Quartz; 
Light to dark brown transparent - Smoky Quartz.

Most of these are dealt with in separate sections. Considered to be
positive stones, from cool tender pink to the strange Tourmalated kind.

Rose Quartz: - Makes the wearer receptive to love by opening the heart.
(pink) - Encourages self-love, romance and the ability to love. 
- Brings adoration and fidelity in established relationships. - Opens
eyes to physical beauty and creativity in all arts.
- Bestows gentleness and peace.

Rutilated Quartz (clear with golden brown needles): Bestows energy. The
healer of the torn and broken. Brings new hope, transmitting
uprightness, independence, and spiritual greatness. Helps the wearer to
defend him or herself without losing sight of goals. Helps with sexual
problems caused by severe tension. Promotes vision, and the ability to
think big.

Smoky Quartz (brown/blackish color): - Increases fidelity. Promotes
tolerance of stress. Helps bear sorrow. Produces great effort in order
to cope with hard times and do whatever is necessary. Encourages a
realistic outlook on life. 

Tourmalated Quartz (clear with black tourmaline crystals): - Stimulates
astral projections and travels. Dissipates negativity, suppressing evil
thoughts. Alleviates isolation and loneliness.


A "marbled" stone, made up of various shades of pink, ranging from very
light to a deep raspberry colour, so much so that it has also been
called "Raspberry Spar", as well as "Manganese Spar". Rhodochrosite in
Greek means "Rose coloured".

- Helpful in moments of extreme physical stress.
- Arouses passion, courage and fortitude.
- Bestows enthusiasm and dynamism to the mind.
- Makes life busy, full of ideas, making work seem easy.
- Encourages eroticism and spontaneous expression of feelings.
- Brings energy, light heartedness and cheerful attitude.


This group contains some very well known stones, again with different
names according to their colour: 
Red - Ruby; 
Blue - Sapphire; 
Clear - White Sapphire; 
Yellow - Yellow Sapphire; 
Pink - Pink Sapphire; 
Green - Green Sapphire; 
Purple/Violet - Violet Sapphire.
The most important of these are dealt with under separate headings.


The name is derived from the Latin "Rubeus", meaning red. It belongs to
the Corundum group. The colour ranges from Blood and wine red to Pink.
It has an ancient history and has been valued in all cultures.
Unanimously considered to be a stone of the sun by all civilizations. It
represents the life force, inner fire, passion and love. A masculine
stone, said to protect warriors, making the wearer invulnerable and
capable of withstanding aggression in all its forms. Bright Pink or red
it emanates warmth and energy.

- A life loving stone, bringing vigour, passion and warmth.
- Protects against all manner of foes, making the wearer invulnerable.
- Brings the strength to withstand manipulation, controversy and disputes.
- Enforces strength, willpower, energy and confidence.
- Replaces sadness and negative thought patterns with joy.
- Stimulates spontaneity and sexual activity.


This is another member of the Corundum group. It is found in a large
variety of colours, ranging from colourless, yellow, pink, violet,
green, blue and black. The best known is the blue variety. The blue is a
cool shade of blue, whose middle shade often gives its name to the
colour. In some examples the colour can be so dark as to seem black, but
is on closer inspection a dark Prussian blue. The name comes from the
Sanskrit word "Sani", meaning Saturn. It was considered to be a stone of
Saturn by most cultures throughout Europe and India. A feminine stone,
with strong connections to water, mirroring our best feelings. It lifts
the spirits, encourages meditation and wisdom, as well as cosmic
awareness and peace of mind.

- It banishes envy, cools anger, promoting reconciliation.
- It reflects purity, chastity and sincerity.
- Inspires meditation, which leads to wisdom.
- It is used to relieve depression through cosmic awareness.
- Considered to be the stone of friendship and fidelity.


There are many different forms of Serpentine, some with specific names
of their own, depending on their colours.

Green - Leaf Serpentine or Antigorite.
Silvery and Fibrous - Chrysotile.
When the two above are combined in alternating bands - Silver Eye.
Pistachio green with darker patches - Leopard Skin Serpentine.
Opaque brown with bands of dark brown and black veins - Zebra Jasper.
Light yellowish green - Bowenite.

The most usual colour is a dark green olive colour. From Roman times
until well into the Middle Ages it has been used to protect against
disease and sorcery. "Fright stones" were carved from Serpentine into
ugly faced amulets, which were supposed to protect against frightening things.

- Said to guard against poisonous creatures.
- Believed to regulate milk supply in nursing mothers.
- It stimulates the urge to solve conflicts.
- Can make the wearer excessive in the love of peace.
- It establishes boundaries.


This stone is opaque, with a mixture of greyish and dark blues, ranging
from white, through blue grey to dark blue and nearly black. The meaning
of the stone is "Sodium stone".

- Healing and promoting peace.
- Acts against fear, anger and guilt, calming inner turmoil.
- Encourages meditation leading to wisdom.
- It is thought to relieve emotional disorders, especially when these
are caused by stress.
- It relaxes the body and the mind.
- It promoted the desire to stand up for personal ideas, helping the
wearer to remain true to him or herself.
- It increases the desire for freedom.


An opaque stone, it is a variety of Zoisite. It receives it name from
the legendary island of "Thule" of Germanic lore supposed to form the
northernmost rim of the world. It is usually reddish or pink, but can be
found mixed with greyish green.

- Bestows courage in undertakings and challenges.
- Encourages sexual impulses but also romantic attachments.
- Stimulates curiosity and invention.
- Stimulates the life force and helps to live life to the fullest.


An opaque stone, with a silky sheen and natural iridescence, which gives
the illusion of an eye. Hence the name. The colour usually consists of
golden, brown and black shimmering bands, but examples are also found in
a reddish brown colour. Unusual and suggestive both in name and
appearance, it is thought to produce self-insight, clarity of thought,
and the strength of opinions.

- This is the stone for the ambitious.
- Strengthens courage, confidence, and convictions.
- Gives the wearer insight into the self, adding perception and clarity
of thought.
- Protects against dangers.
- Promotes the ability to look into the future as well as delving into
past lives.


This stone is transparent, and best known either in its golden whiskey
form or, more readily available, in a sky blue form. It has unanimously
been thought of as a stone of Jupiter, representing the rule and control
over ones own life. In Mexico it was used to find the truth in cases of disagreement.

- Encourages self-realization and the shaping of life according to
personal wishes.
- It brings a breakthrough in spiritual development, especially when
this has been laborious and difficult for a long time.
- Helps gain wisdom from the vagaries of fate.
- Helps to discover inner personal riches, images, abilities, and knowledge.
- Encourages openness, honesty, and a fulfilled emotional life.
- Brings full awareness of influences exerted based on ability, and real
knowledge gained through hard work.


A transparent stone, which comes in a large variety of colours that all
have individual names and qualities. Often there is more than one colour
in an individual specimen; these are called "Polychrome Tourmalines".

Dravite (brown, yellow, green, grey): - Encourages social commitment and
sense of community. Strengthens empathy. Helps with family problems, and
apprehension of large groups. Stimulates practical, simple creativity
and promotes skill in crafts.

Elbaite: - (all colours) Helps combine spirit, soul, intellect and body
into a harmonious whole.
(Colourless) Stimulates imagery, creative daydreams and nigh dreams.
Encourages thinking in images, bringing perfection and imagination.

Indicolite (blue): - Strengthens the urge for spiritual freedom.
Encourages fidelity, ethics, and a love of truth. Dispels sadness and
blocked feelings. Broadens horizons, promoting tolerance and a sense of responsibility.

Rubellite (red/pink): Makes the wearer targeted but flexible enough to
check goals and correct them when necessary. Makes the wearer sociable
and outgoing, ready for action and charming. Helps to actively devote
oneself to one task. 

Verdelite (green): Bestows "Joie de vivre", bringing gratitude for the
wonders of life. Promotes patience, openness, and an interest in others.
Aids awareness of possible solutions, and which to choose.

Schorl (black): - Gives neutrality and a relaxed attitude. Discharges
tensions, and protects from negative thoughts, relieving stress.
Stimulates clear, logical and rational thought processes. Helps
recognise mistakes and analyse them.

Watermelon: - Encourages understanding, friendship and love. Helps to
express intentions in a clear, focused way. Makes the wearer patient,
loving and tender. Alleviates depression, fears, helping to develop an
inner sense  security.


An Opaque stone, which, as its name suggests is turquoise in colour.
This turquoise colour can range from green to blue. It also sometimes
has inclusions of white Marble and Pyrites, much as Lapis Lazuli.
However, it receives its name from the country where the Crusaders first
came into contact with the stone. A delicate stone, which is easily
tarnished from contact with chemicals or grease. In this same way it is
thought that the stone will discolour if the health of the wearer deteriorates.

- Promotes spontaneous romance and protects true love and innocence.
- Ensures marital harmony by encouraging the couple to blend with one another.
- Makes the wearer popular and attracts new friendships.
- It defends virtue.
- Turquoise brings peace of mind, strength for work, an even temper and joyousness.
- Guards against negativity from others by absorbing evil and harmful
vibrations into itself.


This stone is often a bearer rock for Rubies. It is called Zoisite after
its discoverer, Freiherr von Zois. Its appearance is opaque, emerald
green in colour with black splashes.

- Promotes self-confidence, self-realization, and creativity.
- Transforms destructive impulses into a constructive way of life.
- Helps to avoid outside influences helping to fulfil personal ideas and desires.
- Helps to return to the original point of departure bringing renewed
awareness of original intentions.


Misleading Gem Names

What follows is a list of gemstone misnomers - misleading names for
gems. Following each entry is a description of what the material
referred to actually is. Generally speaking, be very skeptical of
two-name names (e.g. jasper jade, or alexandrite garnet), of names with
locations (e.g. African emerald, or Indian topaz), and of names with
strange modifiers (e.g. alabandine ruby, or occidental diamond). Also,
be careful of names that are not spelled exactly right (e.g. emeralda).

Additionally, there are trade names (not listed here) that are not
exactly meant to be misleading, but can be misleading nonetheless if
you're not familiar with them. For example, a Majorca pearl is an
imitation pearl. We have listed some trade names for diamond imitators
under "D".

Another caveat... Legitimate gem names are sometimes used to describe
something that's not quite the real thing. For instance, some may
describe lab-grown alexandrite as simply "alexandrite." That is clearly
misleading. Even the term "synthetic" can be used incorrectly. For
example, "synthetic alexandrite" may be used to incorrectly identify
synthetic corundum or synthetic spinel that imitates alexandrite. It's a
good idea to ask lots of follow-up questions after "what is this?" Is it
man-made? What mineral is it exactly? Has it been treated or enhanced in
any way?

While we've tried to be exhaustive, the preceding discussion and this
list may only be considered partial. Be careful out there...

Most of these definitions came from the "Dictionary of Gems and
Gemology" by Robert Shipley (6th ed., GIA, 1974) and the "Dictionary of
Gemmology" by P. G. Read (2nd ed., Butterworth Scientific, 1988).

Adelaide ruby - garnet from Adelaide, Australia.
African emerald - green fluorite from Namibia.
African jade - green grossular garnet.
Alabandine ruby - almandine garnet.
Alabaster onyx - banded travertine or stalagmatic calcite.
Alaska diamond - quartz (rock crystal).
Alaska jade - pectolite.
Alencon diamond - quartz (rock crystal).
Alexandrine - color-change lab-grown corundum or spinel (imitating alexandrite).
Alexandrite garnet - color-change garnet.
Almandine spinel - lab-grown spinel.
Alpine diamond - pyrites.
Amazon jade - amazonite (a feldspar).
Amberine - yellowish-green moss agate.
American ruby - almandine garnet, or rose quartz.
Ancona ruby - rose quartz.
Andesine jade - andesine.
Antilles pearl - mother-of-pearl from a sea snail.
Aqua gem - light blue synthetic spinel.
Aqualite - blue tourmaline.
Arabian magic diamond - lab-grown colorless or yellow corundum.
Arizona ruby - pyrope garnet from Arizona.
Arizona spinel - garnet.
Arkansas diamond - rock crystal quartz from Arkansas; can be real, too.
Atlas pearls - beads made from white satin spar calcite.
Australian amber - Kauri resin.
Australian jade/turquoise - a material found in Australia, probably variscite.
Australian ruby - garnet.
Azurite - sometimes used incorrectly for lab-grown blue spinel or blue smithsonite.

Baffa diamond - rock crystal quartz.
Balas ruby - red spinel (dates to Middle Ages).
Bastard emerald - peridot, green quartz, or nearly any green stone.
Beach moonstone - quartz.
Bengal amethyst - purple sapphire.
Berilo - green apatite.
Black amber - jet.
(Alaska) Black diamond - Hematite; or real diamond with numerous black inclusions.
Black Hills ruby - garnet.
Black Prince's Ruby - Famous, uncut, red spinel in British Crown Jewels.
Blue alexandrite - color-change sapphire.
Blue malachite - azurite.
Blue moonstone - blue-stained chalcedony.
Blue opal - lazulite.
Blue talc - kyanite.
Bohemian crystal - moldavite.
Bohemian diamond - rock crystal quartz.
Bohemian emerald - green fluorspar.
Bohemian ruby - red garnets.
Bohemian topaz - citrine (get the picture with "Bohemian"!).
Bottlestone - moldavite cut gems.
Brazilian _____ - be careful!...
Briancon diamond - rock crystal quartz.
Brighton diamond - rock crystal quartz.
Broghton emerald - glass emerald simulant.
Bristol diamond - rock crystal quartz.
Burma sapphire - lab-grown blue corundum.
Buxton diamond - rock crystal quartz.

California jade - californite.
California moonstone - chalcedony.
California ruby - garnet.
California ____ - be careful...
Canadian lapis - sodalite.
Cape emerald - prehnite.
Cape May diamond - quartz.
Cape ruby - pyrope garnet.
Catalina sardonyx - catalinite (beach pebbles from the island off CA).
Cave pearl - concretions of calcium carbonate with pearly luster.
Ceylon diamond - colorless zircon.
Ceylon opal - moonstone.
Ceylon peridot - yellowish-green tourmaline.
Champlain marble - massive dolomite from Vermont.
Chinese turquoise - calcite/quartz/blue-dyed-soapstone.
Chinese ________ - be careful!
Colorado diamond - smoky quartz.
Colorado jade - green microcline feldspar.
Colorado ruby - pyrope garnet.
Colorado topaz - citrine.
Congo emerald - dioptase.
Congo ivory - ivory simulant made in South Africa.
Connemara marble - dark green to gray serpentinite.
Copper emerald - dioptase.
Copper lapis - azurite.
Copper malachite - chrysocolla.
Cornish diamond - rock crystal quartz.
Crystalline emerald - quartz.
CZ Diamond - cubic zirconia, a very inexpensive manmade diamond
imitator. [This is my "favorite" of all the misleading terms; actually,
it makes my blood boil every time I see it used. I know that the
perpetrator makes some number of sales to people who one way or the
other end up thinking that the stone is a diamond. There's no question
in my mind that the use of this term (as well as many of the others
listed here) is unethical, and should be a BRIGHT RED WARNING FLAG to
would-be customers.]

Dauphin diamond - rock crystal quartz.
Desert amethyst - solarized glass.
Diamond - There are many misleading names given to diamond imitators,
such as: Diagem, Diakon, Dialite, Diamanite, Diamite, Diamogem,
Diamonair, Diamonaura, Diamon-brite, Diamone, Diamonesque, Diamonette,
Diamonflame,  Diamonique I II and III, Diamonite, Diamonte, Diamontina,
Diamondite, Diamothyst, Diarita, Di'Yag, Djevalite....
Delta pearl = imitation pearl.

Earth stone - amber or andalusite.
Electric emerald - green glass imitation.
Elie ruby - pyrope garnet.
Emeraldine - misleading term for green dyed chalcedony.
Emeraldite - green tourmaline.
Emerald malachite - green fluorspar.
Emerald matrix - green fluorspar.
Emeralite - green tourmaline.
Emerauldine - dioptase.
Endura emerald - green glass emerald simulant.
Evening emerald - peridot.
Eye clean - a meaningless term used to imply a higher clarity grade than
may be present; a standard grade should be stated instead (F, IF, VVS1,
etc.). (See also "loupe clean" below.)

Faience lapis - ceramic.
False amethyst - purple fluorspar.
False lapis - dyed jasper, lazulite.
False _____ - be careful, of course!
Fashoda ruby - iron-rich pyrope garnet.
Feldspar-apyre - andalusite.
Ferrer's emerald - green glass emerald simulant.
Fictile ivory - plaster-of-paris imitation of an ivory carving.
Fire jade - looks like tiger's eye, mainly opal.
Fire pearl - billitonite.
Finder's diamond - colorless topaz.
Fossil turquoise - odontolite.
Fukien jade - soapstone.

Garnet jade - massive green grossular garnet.
Geneva ruby - reconstructed (in the lab) ruby.
Genuine - Be careful when you see this word! Genuine does NOT equal
valuable. All it means is that the material is what it says it is,
that's all. I've seen plenty of genuine gemstones (including rubies,
emeralds, garnets...) that would have been best left in the ground.
They're generally not worth the $5.
German diamond - rock crystal quartz.
German gold - amber.
German lapis - see Swiss lapis, sodalite, or jasper.
German silver - a white metal alloy of nickel, copper, and zinc.
Gibsonville emerald - green quartz.
Glass agate - obsidian.
Gold(en) topaz - gold-colored quartz.
Gold sapphire - lapis with flecks of pyrite.
Green garnet - enstatite (though there are green garnets).
Green onyx - green-stained chalcedony.

Hawaiian Diamonds - quartz.
Hawaiian golden yellow topaz - clear plagioclase feldspar.
Hawaiite - peridot from Hawaii.
Herkimer diamond - quartz.
Hinjosa topaz - yellow quartz.
Honan jade - soapstone.
Hope sapphire - synth blue spinel.
Honan jade - soapstone.
Horatio diamond - rock crystal quartz.
Hot Springs diamond - rock crystal quartz.
Hyacinth topaz - incorrect name for hyacinth (a zircon).

Iceland agate - obsidian.
Imperial Mexican jade = green-dyed calcite.
Imperial sodden snow jade = white nephrite.
Indian emerald = green-dyed cracked quartz.
Indian jade = aventurine.
Indian topaz = yellow sapphire.
Irish diamond = quartz.
Italian lapis - see Swiss lapis.
Isle of Wight diamonds = quartz.
Ivory pearls = spheroids found in tusk cavities.
Ivory turquoise - odontolite.

Jade tenace - saussarite.
Jadine - Australian chrysoprase.
Jasper jade - green jasper or serpentine.
Jade tenace - saussurite (whiteish to light green, H6.5).
Jeweler's topaz - citrine.
Jourado diamond - colorless synthetic spinel.

Kandy spinel - reddish-violet garnet from Sri Lanka.
Killiecrankie diamond - colorless topaz from Australia.
King topaz - yellow sapphire.
Korea jade - loose term for nearly any green stone and/or impure jade.

La beau pearls - imitation pearl.
La tausca pearls - imitations.
Lake George diamond - quartz.
Lake Superior fire agate - glass opal simulant.
Lithia amethyst - spodumene, variety kunzite.
Lithia emerald - spodumene, variety hiddenite (lithium).
Lux sapphire - cordierite.
Lynz sapphire - cordierite.

Madeira topaz - citrine.
Manchurian jade - soapstone.
Mari/marmora/marmarosch diamond - quartz.
Mascot emerald - soudé triplet emerald.
Mass aqua - glass simulant of aquamarine.
Matura diamond - colorless zircon.
Medina emerald - green glass.
Meru sapphire - blue zoisite.
Meta-jade - Japanese glass jade simulant.
Mexican agate/jade/onyx - massive/banded calcite.
Mexican diamond - quartz or danburite.
Mexican _____ - be careful!
Mogok diamond - colorless Burmese topaz.
Mojave moonstone - lilac-tinted chalcedony from Mojave Desert area.
Montana jet - obsidian, from Yellowstone Park.
Montana ruby - red garnet.
Mont Blanc ruby - rose quartz.
Mother-of-emerald - prase or green fluorite.
Mountain ruby - red garnet.
Mutzschen diamond - rock crystal quartz.

Nerchinsk aquamarine - blue topaz.
Nevada black diamond - obsidian.
Nevada lapis - a form of chalcedony (not from Nevada, either).
Nevada topaz - smoky obsidian.
Nevada turquoise - variscite, though it may be genuine, too.
New jade - bowenite.
Night emerald - peridot.
Nickel silver - nickel, copper, zinc alloy of silver.

Occidental cat's eye - quartz.
Occidental diamond - rock crystal quartz.
Occidental topaz - citrine.
Oil pearl - mother-of-pearl from a sea snail.
Olivene - demantoid garnet; (olivine is the mineral name).
One-year pearl - a pearl with very thin nacre regardless of age.
Opal glass - glass imitator of other stones, but not opal(!).
Orange topaz - brownish-yellow quartz.
Oregon jade - dark green plasma variety of chalcedony, jasper.
Oregon moonstone - chalcedony.
Oriental emerald - green sapphire or green chlorospinel.
Oriental ______ - be careful!

Palmeira topaz - brown lab-grown sapphire.
Palmyra topaz - pale yellow heat-treated amethyst/citrine.
Paphros diamond - rock crystal quartz.
Pecos diamond - rock crystal quartz.
Pectolite jade - pectolite (nothing to do with jade).
Pedrara onyx - stalagmitic marble from Mexico.
Pillow Cut - Cushion cut.
Pink moonstone - opalescent pink scapolite.
Pomegranate ruby - red spinel.
Prismatic emerald - euclase.
Prismatic moonstone - chalcedony.
Prismatic quartz - cordierite.
Pseudochrysolite - moldavite.
Pyramidal garnet - idocrase.
Pyroemerald - green fluorite.

Quartz topaz - citrine.
Quasima diamond - rock crystal quartz.
Quebec diamond - rock crystal quartz.

Radium diamond - smoky quartz.
Rainbow magic diamond - synthetic rutile.
Red jade - reddish quartzite, and the red variety of dumortierite in quartz.
Red sea perals - coral beads.
Rhine diamond - rock crystal quartz.
Rhyolite glass - obsidian.
Rocky Mountain ruby - garnet.
Rock ruby - pyrope garnet.
Roman pearls - glass bead pearl imitations.
Rose kunzite - synthetic pink sapphire.
Rose moonstone - pink scapolite.
Rozircon - rose-colored synthetic spinel.
Rubicelle - yellow-orange spinel.
Ruby balas - red spinel.
Ruby spinel - red spinel.

Sacred turquoise - smithsonite.
Salamanca topaz - fiery-colored citrine.
San Diego ruby - red tourmaline.
Saphir d'eau (French) - translates "water sapphire" but is iolite.
Sapphire quartz - blue chalcedony, or hawk's eye quartz.
Sapphire spinel - blue spinel.
Sapphirine - blue chalcedony, blue spinel, or blue glass.
Saxon diamond - colorless topaz.
Saxon topaz - citrine.
Schaumberg diamond - rock crystal quartz.
Scientific ______ - be careful, generally glass!
Scotch topaz - cairngorm, citrine, or smoky quartz.
Scottish topaz - quartz.
Serpentine jade - bowenite.
Shanghai jade - steatite or talc.
Siam aquamarine - heat-treated blue-green zircon.
Siberian ruby - pink or red tourmaline.
Sicilian marble - white Italian marble clouded with greyish veins.
Siliceous malachite - green chrysocolla.
Silver peak jade - malachite (local Nevada term).
Sinopal - reddish aventurine quartz.
Smoky Citrine - smoky Quartz.
Smoky Topaz - smoky quartz.
Soochow jade - bowenite or steatite.
South African emerald - faceted emerald-green fluorspar from Namibia.
South African ______ - be careful.
Spanish emerald - green glass.
Spanish lazulite - cordierite (iolite).
Spanish topaz - orange-brown quartz.
Spinel ruby - red spinel.
Star ruby sapphire - pink/purple/violet star sapphires.
Star topaz - yellow star sapphire.
Stolberg diamond - rock crystal quartz.
Styrian jade - pseudophite or penninite.
Swiss jade - green-stained jasper.
Swiss lapis - blue dyed chalcedony or jasper.
Synthetic alexandrite - is often synthetic corundum or spinel.
Synthetic aquamarine - is often synthetic corundum or spinel.

Tasmanian diamond - rock crystal quartz.
Tecla emerald - false triplet.
Tecla pearls - imitation pearls that are solid or wax filled.
Timur Ruby - the largest known red spinel, British Crown Jewels.
Tokay lux sapphire - Hungarian black obsidian.
Tooth turquoise - odontolite.
Topazolite - yellow andradite garnet.
Topaz cat's eye - yellow girasol sapphire.
Topaz quartz - brownish-yellow quartz.
Topaz saffronite - brownish-yellow quartz.
Tourmaline green - synthetic dark-green spinel.
Transvaal emerald - flourspar.
Transvaal jade - massive green grossular garnet.
Trenton diamond - rock crystal quartz.

Unripe ruby - red zircon.
Uralian emerald - demantoid garnet.
Uralian sapphire - blue tourmaline.
Utah onyx - translucent lemon-colored stalagmitic marble with orange veins.
Utah turquoise - variscite.

Vallum diamond - rock crystal quartz.
Vanadium emerald - green beryl colored with vanadium.
Verdelite - green tourmaline.
Vermeil - orange-red zircon, garnets, or spinel.
Vesuvian garnet - leucite.
Vesuvianite jade - californite.
Vienna turquoise - glass imitation of turquoise.
Volcanic chrysolite - idocrase, or vesuvianite.

Washita diamond - rock crystal quartz.
Water chrysolite - moldavite.
Water sapphire - cordierite.
White garnet - leucite.
Wyse ruby - see Geneva ruby.

Yaqui onyx - a marble from Baja and Mexico.
Yava onyx - marble from Yavapai County, AZ.

Zabeltitzen diamond - rock crystal quartz.
Zebra jasper - brown limonite with lighter brown layers of ancient shells.
Zircon spinel - synthetic blue spinel.

An excellent book for Stones and Gem use is Scott Cunningham's Crystal, Gem, and Metal Magic